Wrinkles in the skin are the result of muscle contractions. The muscle is underneath the skin. A contraction of the muscle underneath causes the overlying skin to crumple causing wrinkles. After thousands and thousands of contractions from our natural facial expressions throughout the years, marks or lines develop where this folding occurs. The older we get, the more wrinkles we accumulate. If we are able to stop or soften the contractions, then wrinkling can be significantly improved.Feel free to see here for additional information.
What causes wrinkles?
There are many factors which contribute to the onset of wrinkles. The following are the most significant:
-The Aging process
Wrinkles are a by-product of the aging process. With age, skin cells divide slower, and the inner layer called the dermis, begins to thin. The network of elastin and collagen fibers, which support the outer layer, loosens and unravels, which results in depressions on the surface. With aging, skin also loses its elasticity, is less able to retain moisture, oil-secreting glands are less efficient and the skin is slower to heal. All of these contribute to the development of wrinkles.
-The connection between Facial muscle contractions and wrinkles
Lines between the eyebrows (frown lines) and lines jutting from the corner of the eyes (crows feet) are believed to develop because of small muscle contractions. Smiling, frowning, squinting and other habitual facial expressions cause these wrinkles to become more prominent. Over time, the expressions coupled with gravity contribute to the formation of jowls and drooping eyelids.
-Wrinkles and sun damage
Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (too much sun) can result in premature aging of skin. Premature aging of the skin is called photoaging. The ultraviolet sunrays that cause photoaging damage collagen fibers (the major structural proteins in the skin) and cause the excessive production of abnormal elastin (the protein which causes skin to stretch). When ultraviolet light damages skin tissue, an enzyme called metalloproteinases is produced. This enzyme creates and reforms collagen. During the process, however, some healthy collagen fibers are damaged, resulting in a disorganized formation of fibers called solar scars. Wrinkles develop when the rebuilding process occurs over and over.
-Wrinkles and smoking
Healthy skin perpetually regenerates. While old collagen is broken down and removed new collagen is being produced and installed. Researchers have found that smoke causes a marked reduction in the production of new collagen. A lack of new collagen results in the development of wrinkles.
-More on smoking and wrinkles and lines on the face
Smoking causes wrinkles by upsetting the body’s mechanism for renewing skin. Dermatologists say the finding confirms the long-held view that smoking ages skin prematurely. Skin stays healthy and young-looking because of a fine balance between two processes that are constantly at work.
The first breaks down old skin while the second makes new skin. The body breaks down the old skin with enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases, or MMPs. They chop up the fibers that form collagen — the connective tissue that makes up around 80 per cent of normal skin.
Researchers suspected that smoking disrupted the body’s natural process of breaking down old skin and renewing it. To test their idea, they first made a solution of cigarette smoke by pumping smoke through a saline solution. Smoke was sucked from cigarettes for two seconds every minute. Tiny drops of this smoke solution were added to dishes of human fibroblasts, the skin cells that produce collagen.
After a day in contact with smoke solution, the researchers tested the skin cells to see how much collagen-degrading MMP they were making and they found that cells exposed to cigarette smoke had produced far more MMP than normal skin cells.
They also tested the skin cells to see how much new collagen they were producing and found that the smoke caused a drop in the production of fresh collagen by up to 40 per cent. This combined effect of degrading collagen more rapidly and producing less new collagen is probably what causes premature skin ageing in smokers. In both cases, the more concentrated the smoke solution the greater the effect on collagen. Archives of Dermatological Research April 2000 292:188
What are the treatment options for wrinkles?
Removing skin layers to reduce wrinkles or irregular depressions is an effective way to regain smoother, more youthful looking skin. Dermabrasion (scraping layers away) and chemical peels (dissolving skin away) are two of the traditional methods used in skin resurfacing. Tthe latest techniques developed to repair pre-maturely aging skin are identified.
There are several “no-down time” options for reducing lines and wrinkles.
BOTOX® cosmetic for wrinkle and line reduction
Over the last fifteen year, BOTX cosmetic has proven to be safe and effective in treating wrinkles caused by repeated use of facial muscles, such as frown lines, crow’s feet and forehead creases. Treatment takes about 20 minutes and results can be seen in about 5 days.
BOTOX® cosmetic injection therapy
BOTOX® cosmetic is a new medication derived from the botulinum toxin which controls a muscle’s ability to squeeze. BOTOX® cosmetic is injected into the muscles whose contractions cause the wrinkles between the eyebrows and the lines that radiate from the corner of the eyes (crow’s feet).